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Full text of "Pictou Nova Scotia Canada. Nova Scotia's northern ocean port. Issued under the approval of the Town Council of Pictou, N.S"

V».A. WIB 



's Northern Ocean Port 



The EDITH and LORNE PIERCE 
COLLECTION o/CANADIANA 




Queen's University at Kingston 



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PICTOU 



NOVA SCOTIA 



CANADA 



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NOVA SCOTIA'S NORTHERN 
OCEAN PORT 




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1916 



ISSUED UNDER THE 

APPROVAL OF THE TOWN COUNCIL OF 

PICTOU. N S. 



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FOREWORD. 




'$, S J}T is nearly 150 years since the founda- 
ggL tion of Pictou town was laid. Dur- 
ing that time the town and county 
have played a prominent part in the 
history of the Province. It has taken 
a foremost place in religion and edu- 
cation, and in the founding of Pictou Academy, the 
one hundredth anniversary of which was com- 
memorated on August 27th last, it has achieved 
a foremost place in the educational annals of Nova 
Scotia. 

During the past few years also, the industrial 
development of the County has teen so marvel- 
ous, its output of coal has increased to such an 
extent, and its manufacture of iron and steel pro- 
ducts has been so great, that Pictou, with its mag- 
nificent harbour and its increasing terminal facilties 
as the head of deep water navigation for northern 
Nova Scotia, and v ith a ship building plant five 
niles up the river in full operation, should become 
an ocean port of great importance, as well as a great 
business and industrial centre. 

In order to give the reader an idea of its early 
history and to show what progress it has n.ade, 
the booklet submitted contains articles on its foun- 
dation, government, public improvements, religious 
and educational activities, transportation, manu- 
facturing, sports and other advantages. The read- 
ing is illustrated by nearly one hundred pictures of 
nature scenes, harbour views, schools, churches, 
and residences, in order to give the reader an even 
more comprehensive idea of its growth and what 
it offers as a transportation, manufacturing, educa- 
tional and residential centre. 



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Mayo)- oj Pictou. 






PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PIOTOU 



HISTORICAL. 



PICTOU, the shire town of 
Pictou County with a popu- 
lation of 3200 people, is 
situated at the entrance to 
the harbor bearing the same name, 
on the northern coast of Nova Sco- 
tia, where its waters mingle with 
those of Northumberland Strait. 

A view of matchless beauty 
greets the eye, when standing on 
the higher ground above the busi- 
ness section of the town and look- 
ing eastward, north and south 
across the waters of the harbour 
and onward to the shores beyond. 
Terrace like the hillsides rise, and 
breaking through their vales of 
green, the winding East, Middle 
and West Rivers may be seen, 
which in their onward sweep from 
distant hills beyond, meet to form 
the harbour, which with the island 
at its mouth, has made a land lock- 
ed sea where some five hundred 
vessels may be safely moored. 

The country round about was 
originally inhabited by the Micmac 
Indians, a tribe of the powerful 
Algonquin nation. During the 
years while the French ruled in 
Canada, a number of settlements 
had been made in the County, 
which were, however, abandoned 
when the Acadians were expelled 
from Xova Scotia in 1755. 

While the Treaty of Paris signed 
in 1763, by which all Canada be- 
came an English possession, direct- 
ed the attention of prospective 
immigrants to the agricultural and 
forest wealth of the County, it 
was not until June 10th, 1767, that 



the first English settlers, compris- 
ing six families of thirty persons, 
arrived in the Brig "Hope" from 
Philadelphia. They disembarked 
near the Town Gut, on land now 
known as Brown's Point, in the 
vicinity of which they had been 
granted about two hundred thous- 
and acres of land. Like nearly all 
early settlers of America they suf- 
fered many privations. While 
the land was rich in timber the lat- 
ter had to be felled before the soil 
could be tilled. Although discour- 
aged by the prospect before them, 
they set to work to build rude 
dwellings. A road was cut to Truro 
and settlements further south, 
which had been established about 
ten years before. To support 
themselves they cultivated small 
patches of land for vegetables and 
grain, and engaged in hunting and 
fishing. By the c'ose of the year 
1769 the community included 84 
white persons who owned 64 bush- 
e'.s of wheat, 60 of oats, 8 of barley, 
6 of rye, 6 of peas and some flax, 
besides 6 horses, 16 cows, 16 oxen, 
16 young cattle, 37 sheep, 10 swine, 
as well as a small vessel, a fishing 
boat and a saw mill. 

Three years later, in September, 
1773, the " Hector " arrived from 
Scotland with 189 souls. In 1775 
thirteen more families, mostly farm- 
ers, came from Scotland to join 
their countrymen, whose numbers 
were further increased by the ar- 
rival of disbanded British soldiers, 
nearly all Scottish, in 1783, and 
to whom the British Government, 



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following the close of the revo- 
lutionary war, had allotted large 
tracts of land in the county 
and elsewhere in the province. 
Slowly the population increased. 
By 1775 effective Municipal Gov- 
ernment had been established, and 
the centre of the town was moved 
further down the harbour follow- 
ing the escheatment of the McNutt 
Grant to the Crown. In 1786 the 
county had 90 families, the num- 
ber of whom had grown to 178 in 
1793, the majority living in 
the village of Fictou. The first 
years of the century brought an 
increasing number of emigrants, 
principally from the Highlands of 
Scotland. From 1801 to 1805 as 
many as 1300 souls landed at Pic- 
tou in a single season, the greater 
number of whom settled on farms 
in Pictou and adjoining counties. 
As a result of this emigration from 
Scotland, the county became pre- 
dominantly Scottish in character, a 
distinction it enjoys to this day, 
as more than 27,000 of its 36,000 
inhabitants are the descendants of 
this thrifty and intellectually 
forceful race, who have played and 
play today a conspicuous role in 
the business, educational, intellect- 
ual and political life of the Pro- 
vince and the Dominion. 

The new settlers gradually took 
up land along the East, Middle 
and West Rivers, and also along 
the Strait shore. The land was 
rich in forests of pine and other 
wood, and lumbering became one 
of the chief industries of the coun- 
ty. In 1774 the first cargo of 
square timber was shipped from 
Pictou to Great Britain. In 1803 
some 50 vessels were loaded at its 
wharves, and it is estimated that 



the exports from 1800 to 1820 
amounted to s > 500,000 yearly, the 
greatest part of which consisted 
of lumber. 

In 1828 Pictou became a free 
port, and following the repeal of 
other trade restrictions which had 
hitherto been imposed on the col- 
onies by the mother country, its 
trade rapidly overcame the panic 
of 1825-26. An era of ship con- 
struction began, which continued 
for a period of 45 years only to de- 
cline when the wooden ships were 
replaced by those made of iron. 

With the acquisition of all the 
reserve mines in the province, by 
the General Mining Association in 
1827, coal mining assumed large 
proportions. In 1836 the company 
constructed a railroad six miles 
long from the mines to a point 
not far from Pictou Landing, op- 
posite the Town of Pictou. It was 
the first steel railway in Canada, 
and carried the coal to the Load- 
ing Ground, where it was loaded 
into ocean going vessels. The or- 
ganization of the Hope Iron Works 
in 1872 at New Glasgow, eight 
miles distant, also added to the 
transportation growth of the town, 
while at the same time smaller in- 
dustries grew up within its own 
limits. In 1840 G. J. Hamilton 
founded the biscuit factory, which 
under his successors, as G. J. Ham- 
ilton & Sons, Limited, has grown 
to one of the largest in the eastern 
provinces. At Lyons Brook, three 
miles distant, John Logan estab- 
lished a tannery in 1848, which 
with the years has become one of the 
largest sole leather factories in 
the Dominion. The Pictou Foun- 
dry and Machine Company, whose 
foundation was laid as early as 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU HARBOUR. 



Photo by Munro. 



1856 still does a flourishing busi- 
ness. The town has an active 
ship repairing plant, a large mill- 
ing plant, besides saw mills and a 
number of smaller industries. 

In 1833 the "Royal William" 
left Pictou Harbour for England, 
the first steamer propelled by 
steam, generated from coal mined 
in the county, to cross the Atlantic 
Ocean. At Pictou was established 
the "Colonial Patriot", the sec- 
ond native newspaper in Canada. 
From this town in 1846 Rev. John 
Geddie, a Presbyterian clergyman, 
went to the New Hebrides, the 
first missionary from all the Brit- 
ish Colonies. The first Presbyter- 
ian institution, for higher educa- 
tion in Nova Scotia, was founded 
here, and called Pictou Academy, 
while the controversy which was 



waged over it made it the center 
of the movement for Provincial 
responsible Government. 

The town has the largest harbor 
along the northern shores of Nova 
Scotia. It has fine railway trans- 
portation service and with the 
completion of the railway bridge 
across the harbour, it is bound to 
become a railway center of great 
importance. It has an efficient 
water and electric lighting service. 
It has attractive streets, flanked 
by well kept gardened homes. It 
has splendid schools and large 
churches. It has a good theatre. 
Its maritime location and cool 
summer climate, with its situation 
at the head of deep water naviga- 
tion, makes it not only one of the 
most delightful summer towns, 
but also one of the best distribut- 
ing points in the Maritime Pro- 
vinces. 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




CANADIAN GOVERNMENT RAILWAY PIER Photo by Wheten 

showing steamship plying between Pictou and Prince Edward Island. 

GOVERNMENT AND FINANCE. 



PICTOU, incorporated in 1874, 
is governed by a mayor and 
six councillors, who appoint 
all tov\n offcers and employees. 
The various departments, like fi- 
nance, water, electric light, and 
streets are administered by stand- 
ing committees in cooperation with 
the council as a whole, which this 
year consists of the following mem- 
bers : James W. Smith, Mayor; 
YVm.Brennan, Fresiding Councillor; 
who with Warren H.Pope represents 
Ward I; T. A. McKay and F. B. A. 
Chipman, Ward II; W. D. Smith 
and J. W. Murdock, Ward III, 
a body of representative busi- 
ness and professional men, who 
are giving the town a progressive 
yet careful administration. 

For 1916 the assessed valuation 
of property in the town amounted 
to $1,184,990, while $54,575 was 
exempted from taxation. The rate 
of taxation is $2.90 on each hun- 
dred dollars, which, while some- 



what high, is necessary on account 
of the low assessment, and the de- 
mands made on the town for pat- 
riotic purposes. 

The total town revenue, from all 
sources, during 1915, amounted 
to $75,602.17, out of which all ex- 
penses were met, leaving a small 
balance to its credit. In the year 
1915 its assets were valued at 
$277,221.50, of which the water 
works amounted to $124,851.55, 
and the electric light plant $61,- 
805.56. It has a gross bonded 
debt of $256,200.00. Of this sum, 
however, $177,900.00 are for water 
extension and electric light plant 
installation, two departments which- 
are self supporting, and from the 
earnings of which the amounts 
devoted to interest and sinking 
funds are met. Deducting this 
sum, together with $15,422.86 sink- 
ing fund accumulation, from the 
gross debt of $256,200, leaves the 
town's actual debt only $62,877.14, 



10 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



11 



a sum amounting to little more 
than one-fourth of the town's total 
assets to be met by general tax- 



ation, figures which show that the 
town financially, is in a flourishing 
condition. 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 



THE water system installed in 
1901, gives Pictou an abundant 
supply of pure water. It comes 
from nine artesian wells, one and 
one-half miles from the town, 
pumped to a stand pipe 60 feet 
high, with a capacity of 470,000 
gallons, located on an eminence 
overlooking the town. The water 
pressure exerted at the town's low- 
er level approximates 110 pounds 
and forces a stream which rises far 
above its highest buildings. 

The water rates are very low. 
Factories receive special concess- 
ions. The town has about nine 
miles of v ater pipes, and 80 hy- 
drants conveniently placed. The 
fire equipment consists of one 
steamer, one ladder truck, one 
hose u agon, three hose reels and 
2500 feet of hose. The fire trigade 
comprises 62 men, whose efficient 
service, under chief A. S. Stalker, 
has given the to ,vn a fire record 
of which it may be justly proud. 

During 1913, the fire loss was 
only $60.00. In 1914, the loss 
amounted to $3300.00. In 1915, 
it was about $2000.00, and this year 
the losses so far total only about 
$500.00, a service which has placed 
the town in a first class position on 
the books of fire underwriters. 

In the year 1904 the town pur- 
chased the property of the Pictou 
Gas Company, and installed an 
electric light plant at a cost of 
158,000, with a capacity of 281 
killowats, which it began operating 



the following year, at the same time 
discontinuing the gas service. 

At present nearly 400 customers 
are served with electric light and 
power. The rate from one to four 
H. P. is 8 cents; five to ten H. P. 
6 cents; eleven to twenty-five H. P. 
5 cents, and from twenty-six H. P. 
upwards it is 3 cents per killowat 
with a minimum charge of $1.00 
per horse power per month. Elec- 
tric light is 10 cents per killowat, 
and the town expects to reduce 
the rates still further in the near 
future. Not only has the electric 
lighting plant paid operating ex- 
penses, interest, sinking and depre- 
ciation funds, but it has made a 
surplus from year to year, the 
amount in 1915 being $1,892.11. 

The greater part of the town is 
sewered to the harbor. Water 
Street has concrete sidewalks, and 
the town expects to have perman- 
ent streets next year. Nearly all 
the streets are well shaded and 
well graded. The Marconi station 
is located here and also a weather 
signal post. The police force con- 
sists of the chief and an assistant. 
The Stipendiary Court is efficient- 
ly administered, making the town 
remarkably free from petty crimes 
and misdemeanors. All the various 
county offices are located here. The 
Custom House is an attractive 
building. It has two telegraph and 
two express companies, while an 
efficient telephone service connects 
it with every town and village in 
the Province. 



12 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



13 



EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES. 



' town in the Province has an 
educational history more in- 
teresting and far reaching in 
its results than has Pictou. Here 
was conceived and cradled the in- 
stitution known as Pictou Academy 
which in spite of its struggling and 
checkered career, not only gave a 
solid classical and scientific educa- 
tion to aspiring young men of the 
County and Province, but because 
of the cpntroversy which waged 
around it, as to its rights and 
wrongs, also gave a great impetus 
to the movement which some years 
later won responsible government 
for Nova Scotia. 

If, as Emerson says, "every great 
institution is the lengthened sha- 
dow of one man," then Pictou Aca- 
demy, from 1816 to 1832, was in- 
deed the visible incarnation of the 
genius of Dr. Thomas McCulloch, 
a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman, 
who on his way to Prince Edward 
Island, on account of the lateness of 
the season, was persuaded to re- 
main during the winter of 1803-4 
in Pictou, a resolve which was 
fraught with far-reaching conse- 
quences on the intellectual life of 
the Province. No sooner had he 
become pastor of the Harbour 
(now Prince Street) congregation 
in 1804, than he recognized the 
need of well educated Presbyterian 
clergymen, and then and there he 
conceived the idea, which twelve 
years later flowered as the Pictou 
Academy. He began the organ- 
ization of a society to found an 
institution of learning^offering a 
college education, with a view of 
preparing young men for the Pres- 
byterian ministry. The project 



not materializing at that time, he 
opened a grammar school on his 
own account, and following the 
passage of the grammar school act 
he received the Government Grant 
of one hundred pounds allotted to 
the Pictou County District. His 
school attracted students, not only 
from all sections of the Province, 
but also from the West Indies, 
whom he tutored with the idea 
of matriculating in the future col- 
lege which his genius had planned, 
and which he hoped to see estab- 
lished in the not distant futute. 

Eleven years later his dream was 
realized with the incorporation 
of "Pictou" Academy, on March 
26th, 1816. In deference to the 
friends of King's College, which 
had been founded in 1790, and 
which received not only a perman- 
entProvincial grant of $2000.00 but 
also a British Government grant 
of $5000.00 yearly, its promoters 
did not ask to have it called a col- 
lege, with the privilege of confer- 
ring degrees, altho it was intended 
from the first to impart to its stu- 
dents a collegiate training. More- 
over, the charter required, on the 
insistence of the Government, that 
while open to everybody in general 
and to dissenters in particular, its 
teachers were to be Presbyterians, 
and its Board of Trustees were to 
te composed of only Presbyterians 
or Anglicans. 

These conditions greatly hinder- 
ed its growth and usefulness. It 
naturally could not ask support 
from anybody except members of 
its own faith, and as the Presby- 
terians numbered only about twen- 
ty congregations in the Province, 



14 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



15 



it loaded them with a heavy finan- 
cial burden. However, they raised 
about one thousand pounds, to 
which the Government added a- 
bout five hundred pounds more, 
and the building, a picture of 
which appears on another page, 
was erected. Dr. McCulloch was 
made principal and a class of 23 
students was organized in 1817. 
They met first in a private resid- 
ence, but moved into the Academy 
building following its completion 
in 1818. Dr. McCulloch, while 
continuing as pastor to Prince 
Street Church, was unstinting in 
his devotion to the new institution. 
He taught Hebrew, Greek, Logic 
and philosophy. He had one as- 
sistant for a number of years, who 
taught mathematics in the Aca- 
demy, in addition to his duties as 
head of the Grammar School. 
Students who were sufficiently ad- 
vanced, and who wished to enter 
the ministry, he privately instruct- 
ed in theology, and in this way 
in a measure, carried out the orig- 
inal purpose of the institution. 

Its success encouraged the trus- 
tees to ask the government in 1823 
for a permanent endowment. Up 
to this time they had received about 
1300 pounds in yearly grants. The 
application for an endowment, 
while passed by the Assembly at 
its sessions in 1823 and 1824, was 
rejected in both instances by the 
Council, altho a grant of 400 
pounds was agreed to by the Upper 
House in the latter year. 

In 1825 began the struggle for 
recognition and public aid which 
has become historic. The dissent- 
ers numbered nearly four fifths 
of the population of the Province, 
the greater number of whom were 



Presbyterians. The latter felt 

that they should at least have an 
endowment equal to Kings College, 
whose tests were such as to bar all 
but Anglicans, and these only num- 
bered one-fifth of Nova Scotia's 
population. The trustees asked 
that the tests saddled on the Aca- 
demy be removed. They petitioned 
for the right to confer degrees, 
and asked for the founding of a 
divinity professorship, while at 
the same time renewing their re- 
quest for a permanent endowment. 
All these applications, while passed 
by the Assembly, were rejected by 
the Council, altho they agreed to 
pass the yearly grant of 400 pounds. 

In the meantime the friends of 
the institution were active in its 
support. Governmental opposi- 
tion urged them on to greater ef- 
fort. The Presbyterian church 
synod took up subscriptions for 
its maintenance. Ladies' Penny- 
a-week societies were formed to 
raise money for it. Dr. McCul- 
loch visited Scotland, in its behalf, 
and as a result the United Secession 
Church recognized its claims, and 
urged its congregations to forward 
financial help, which they did, 
while the students of Theological 
Hall pledged themselves to raise 
200 pounds. A respectable library 
was collected and a philosophical 
apparatus was installed. Later a 
chemical apparatus was added, and 
with the assistance of his family 
Dr. McCulloch collected a muse- 
um of natural history, which at 
the time was the largest in the 
Province, Audubon pronouncing 
his collection of native birds a- 
mong the finest he had ever seen. 

Up to this time the opposition 
to the Academy had come from 



16 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 







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the leaders of the established 
church, who were in the majority 
in the council, altho four of its 
nine members, as well as influential 
Anglicans of the Assembly cham- 
pioned its right with great orator- 
ical ability. Now they were to 
meet opposition in their own ranks. 
Presbyterian was arrayed against 
Presbyterian. The trustees were 
asked to drop the teaching of the 
higher branches, by members of 
the Church of Scotland. The form- 
er refused. The petitions sent to 
the Assembly during the next few 
years asking for a change in the 
school, influenced the council to re- 
fuse all aid, while the management 
remained under the then trustees, 
altho they later agreed that 400 
pounds be placed in the hands of 
the Governor for the benefit of the 
institution. 

Thus the struggle continued un- 
til 1&31. Bill after bill was passed 
by the Assembly with large majori- 
ties — sometimes unanimously — and 
as often rejected by the Upper 
House. A great amount of poli- 
tical and religious animosity was 
engendered. But speeches were 
also made in behalf of education 
and popular government, which 
have no superior in the annals of 
Nova Scotia history. In the same 
year Jotham Blanchard was en- 
trusted with a mission to England 
to lay the case of the Academy 
before the British Government, 
which after hearing him, virtually 
sustained all his contentions. The 
Local Government was severely 
reprimanded. As a result, a com- 
promise measure was introduced in 
the Assembly, and after several 
modifications, was passed by the 
Council. Both Collegiate and 



Grammar School studies were 
to be taught in the same building 
and 100 pounds of the 400 pound 
government grant, was to be de- 
voted to the latter. 

From now on the institution de- 
clined. In 1838, Dalhousie Col- 
lege, which had been established in 
the meantime, received a grant of 
800 pounds, and Dr. McCulloch 
was appointed its president, a posi- 
tion he held until his death in 1843. 
Pictou Academy continued to do 
efficient educational work, but its 
glory had departed. The colleg- 
iate studies were gradually aban- 
doned, until it reached the status 
of a Grammar school, and as such 
it remained until 1865, in which year 
under the Nova Scotia School Act 
it was remodelled as a County 
Academy. 

Altho the institution did not con- 
fer degrees, it gave its students a 
thorough classical and scientific 
education. Three of the students 
belonging to the first class which 
had graduated from the Academy 
won on examination the degree of 
M. A. from Glasgow University. 
It has trained a large number of 
men for stations of usefulness in 
Church and State. It has educated 
more than 300 men for the minis- 
try. It has given eight college 
presidents to Canada, and several 
to the United States. Among its 
graduates was the late president 
of McGill College, Sir Wm. Eaw- 
son, one of America's famous scien- 
tific men, Sir T. D. Archibald, 
Baron of the English Court of Ex- 
chequer, Judge Ritchie of the Su- 
preme Court of Canada, Sir Hugh 
Hoyle, Chief Justice of Newfound- 
land, D. D. M. Cordon, president 
of Queens College, Toronto, and 



18 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




CHURCHES. Photo by Wheten 

(1) St. Andrp-wV, Presbyterian( Kirk). (2) Prince Street Presbyterian. (3) Methodist. (4) St. James 
Anglican. (5) Knox Presbyterian. 16) Stella Maris Roman Catholic Church. 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



19 



others who have won distinction 
in the professions and business. 

It largely advanced the cause of 
higher education in the Province. 
The crushing of Pictou Academy, 
called Dalhousie College into ex- 
istence, and the class in theology 
by Dr. McCulloch culminated in 
Pine Hill, the Presbyterian Theo- 
logical College at Halifax, while 
its educational struggles, and the 
movement for responsible govern- 
ment which grew out of it, gives 
it a unique place in Nova Scotia's 
educational history and has in- 
vested it with a halowed fame, 
which the years cannot dim nor 
the hand of time erase. 

"With the enactment of the Nova 
Scotia School Act, grants of $600.00 
were made for each County Aca- 
demy to which students passing 
the entrance examination were ad- 
mitted free. Pictou Academy, with 
about six other institutions, on ac- 
count of their superior equipment, 
received grants of $1000.00 in- 
stead of $600.00 per year. The 
increased amount greatly added to 
its efficiency. Under Dr. A. H. 
MacKay, who became principal 
in 1873 it made renewed headway. 
It became celebrated far beyond 
the limits of the county, and the 
number of students increased to 
such an extent, that a new build- 
ing became absolutely necessary. To 
that end about $20,000 was raised, 
and the new school was erected on 
the site of the present one, making 
it at the time one of the finest high 
school buildings in the Province. 

Under the Act passed in 1885 to 
encourage Academic Education, 
Pictou Academy, on account of 
the high character of the educa- 
tional work done, was entitled to 



the largest grant the Government 
offered. In 1895, the Academy 
building was struck by lightning 
and the greater part of a valuable 
museum and many interesting re- 
cords were destroyed. A new one 
double the size of the old, was 
erected in 1896, and completed in 
1897. It is an attractive building, 
as the picture shows, and occupies 
an imposing position on the upper 
levels of the town. It has four 
class rooms and a well equipped 
chemical and scientific labratory 
as well as a well selected museum. 

The faculty is composed of the 
Principal and four instructors. 
The course of studies embraces 
four years. Ancient and Modern 
languages, physics, biology, zoo- 
logy and other studies are taught, 
passing which a certificate admits 
students to any of the Nova Scotia 
colleges. 

The town has two buildings for 
teaching primary and intermediate 
studies, in which eight teachers are 
employed. The West end school 
is the original Academy building 
erected nearly one hundred years 
ago, and is still in a good state of 
preservation. 

The Catholics support a separate 
school, known as Stella Maris Con- 
vent, under the direction of the 
sisters of the Congregation de No- 
tre Dame. It is conducted both 
as a boarding and day school, 
which latter is attended by 165 pu- 
pils. 

The Pictou School of Music is 
affiliated with the Royal College 
of Music and Royal Academy of 
Music of London, England. Its 
founder, Professor T. Singleton has 
had wide musical experience. He 
is at present the organist of St. 



20 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



21 



James Church, before which he 
was engaged with the Methodist 
Church of Fort Hope for 23 years. 

The school has been very suc- 
cessful. Over 50 pupils received 



certificates since it was established, 
among w horn v. as Catherine Sin- 
gleton, aged 6 years and 4 nonths, 
who up to that tin e vs as the young- 
est child in Canada to pass the 
primary grade exan ination. 



CHURCHES. 



,F the 36,000 population the 
county had in 1911, 24,000 
were Presbyterians, 5,600 
were Catholics, leaving 6,500 to be 
divided among other denomina- 
tions. 



pied by Prince Street Church. It 
served them as a church home until 
1848, when the present building 
was completed, which has a seat- 
ing capacity for about 800 per- 
sons. 



Following the arrival of Dr. 
James McGregor, in 1786, the 
Presbyterians erected a church at 
Loch Broom on the West River, 
and one at New Glasgow, near the 
Old Duff Cemetery, along the 
East River. Dr. McGregor preach- 
ed his first sermon in Squire Pat- 
terson's barn near Pictou. He 
was the first regularly appointed 
minister in Pictou County and he 
served the Presbyterians singly 
until 1795, when the Rev. Duncan 
Ross became his assistant. 

In 1801, Dr. McGregor assumed 
charge of the East River and Meri- 
gomish parishes, and Rev. Duncan 
Ross became pastor of Loch Broom 
congregation, while the Pictou or 
Harbour congregation was served 
temporarily, until Dr. Thomas 
McCulloch was chosen to be its 
minister in 1804, who remained 
until 1824, when he resigned in 
order to give all his time to Pictou 
Academy. 

After Dr. McCulloch had be- 
come pastor, the congregation er- 
ected a church on the lot occu- 



St. Andrews congregation was 
founded in Pictou in 1822, where 
they first worshipped in the Old 
Court House. In 1823 they erected 
a small wooden building on the 
land on which stands the present 
imposing structure. In 1866 the 
original building was replaced by a 
brick and stone church, costing 
$32,000. It served the congrega- 
tion as a church home until 1893, 
when it was destroyed by fire, to 
be followed by the present hand- 
some brick building completed in 
1895. 

Knox Church was organized a- 
bout 1846, and in 1848, the present 
church building was erected. In 
1894 the church was thoroughly 
renovated. The old seats were re- 
placed by the new ones of polished 
oak, and other improvements made, 
making it with its imposing loca- 
tion, one of the finest church pro- 
perties in the town. 

Stella Maris Catholic Church 
commands a magnificent view of 
Pictou Harbour. The first Catho- 



22 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




FRONT STREET. 



Photo by Wheten 



lie church in the county, was built 
in Merigomish in 1810. Services 
were held in Pictou as early as 1823, 
and in 1828 the first priest was 
regularly located in the town. In 
1865, during the pastorship of 
Rev. Ronald MacDonald, who in 
1881 was elevated to the purple 
as Bishop of Harbor Grace, New 
foundland, the present church was 
built, followed a few years later 
by the erection of the Glebe House 
and Convent of the sisters of the 
Congregation de Notre Dame. 

St. James Anglican Parish was 
first organized in 1826, and the 
first church building was dedicated 
for worship in 1829. From Pictou 
as a center the other churches in 
the county were served until 1852, 
when that part including New 



Glasgow and Albion Mines was 
constituted a separate parish. As 
early as 1775, however, occasional 
services had been held. In 1849, 
the church was lengthened, and in 
1869 a rectory was completed, while 
in 1879 the corner stone was laid for 
the present church building, which 
was dedicated for worship on June 
5th, 1881. 

The Methodist Church was or- 
ganized in 1856, altho the history 
of Methodism in the county dates 
back to 1798, when the coal mines 
were first opened. The Pictou 
Church building belonged original- 
ly to the United Evangelical de- 
nomination who united with the 
former, to form the Methodist 
congregation, which numbers at 
present about 60 communicants. 



PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 

THE Cottage Hospital located tients, besides three private rooms, 

on a high elevation overlook- and can accommodate ten patients, 

ing the harbour has a ward for The staff consists of the Superin- 

male and one ward for female pa- tendent,a graduate night nurse and 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



23 




WATER STREET, 



Photo by Wheten 



two day nurses. The Marine Hos- 
pital is an attractive h rick build 
ing along the hart our front. It is 
to be remodeled in the near future, 
and is to be occupied by the Cottage 
Hospital, as the latter is not large 
enough to accommodate its increas- 
ing number of patients. 

Pictou has a very fine theatre 
which compares favorably in its 
equipment and comfort with those 
in larger towns. It was opened in 
the fall of 1915, and is the product 
of Mr. B. Gravestock's energetic 
effort, who recognizing the need 
of an up-to-date play house, 
organized a stock company com- 
posed of the leading business men in 
in the town, and rebuilt the old 
Advocate Hall previously used as 
a moving picture house, into a 
modern theatre. The interior is 
beautifully decorated. The chairs 
are up-to-date and comfortable. 
The house seats 500 people, and 
the orchestra of eight instruments, 



would be hard to duplicate in the 
pro/ince, while the entertainment 
provided is of first class order and 
changed nightly. 

The Board of Trade, composed 
of the town's business and pro- 
fessional men, is actively inter- 
ested in its growth and develop- 
ment. The Court House and Y. 
M. C. A. are attractive buildings. 
The tow n has a fine Park near 
.the railway station. The sisters 
of the Congregation de Notre 
Dame, own a fine convent. 
All leading secret organizations 
have lodges in the town. It has 
tennis, boating and outdoor 
sport associations, as well as curl- 
ing and other clubs, to carry on the 
various winter sports, which with 
church societies and reading cir- 
cles, makes the social and in- 
tellectual life of the town both 
pleasant and profitable. 



24 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



25 



WATER AND RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION. 




NE of the town's chief assets 
is its magnificent harbour, 
the waters of which have a 
depth of more than 40 feet. It 
has a width of one and one-half 
to two miles,and extends from Low- 
den's Beach inward, where theEast, 
Middle and West Rivers flow into 
it, affording anchorage for the 
largest vessels afloat. 

The Harbour, owned by the 
Federal Government, has four deep 
water berths at Pictou and two at 
Pictou Landing, which, with the 
railway tracks passing through the 
length of the large freight shed 
facing the Intercolonial Main Pier 
and Acadia Coal Company piers, 
gives it excellent shipping facili- 
ties. 

In order to make its water com- 
munication still better with towns 
further inland, the government 
has dredged the East River to a 
depth of 21 feet as far as Trenton 
with a turning basin 450 feet wide 
near where the Plant of the Nova 
Scotia Steel and Coal Company is 
located. A lock 638 feet long, 55 
feet wide and 22 feet deep is in 
course of construction, which, 
when completed, will not only 
bind the towns along the East 
River more closely to Pictou, but 
greatly increase its importance as 
an ocean port, the business of 
which amounted in the past year 
to more than $4,000,000.00 the 
largest it has ever had. 

Pictou has daily boat communi- 
cation with Charlottetown through 
out the year, and a twice-a-week 
service with the other P.E.I. ports, 
as well as the Magdalen Islands, 
calling at all its principal places. 



Boats also ply between Arisaig, 
Port Hood, Mulgrave and Cheti- 
camp eastward, and to Quebec, 
Montreal and intermediate points 
westward fortnightly, while a 
steamer runs daily to New Glasgow 
and all trains are met by boat to 
and from Fictou Landing, in ad- 
dition to ferries, which run every 
hour. 

RAILWAYS 

Pictou is the Government Rail- 
way terminus for the railway lines 
from Halifax and the Short Line 
from Oxford Junction. The rail- 
way property, comprises about 
25 acres of land. On it are located 
the large freight shed facing the 
water front, a round house with 
nine stalls, enriched by beautiful 
flower beds, kept up by its employ- 
ees, a passenger station erected in 
1904, the custom house and other 
buildings. The yards have seven 
miles of tracks. The water tank 
holds 40,000 gallons of water sup- 
plied by artesian wells and the 
town water works, while the lat- 
ter's electrical plant furnishes the 
electricity which the government 
uses at this point. 

Fourteen passenger trains and a 
large number of freight trains ar- 
rive and depart daily. By means 
of the line connecting it with the 
main line at Stellarton, and the 
short line joining the former at Ox- 
ford Junction, it has railway com- 
munications with all parts of Nova 
Scotia and points in Upper Canada 
and the United States. 

With the completion of a rail- 
way bridge across Pictou Harbour 



26 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




GOVERNMENT RAILWAY STATION AND CUSTOM HOUSE TO LEFT. 



Photo by Munro 



which is expected soon to become a 
reality, and a short line to Monc- 
ton via Bay Verte, Pictou's isolat- 
ed position would be removed. 
The distance between Pictou 
and Moncton would be reduced 
by fifty miles, and owing to better 
grades, the haulage capacity over the 
old line to Truro would be doubled. 
Pictou town would then have a main 
line service. Its present isolated 
position would be removed, and with 
its shipping advantages it would 
soon become a Divisional District 
and a large distributing centre for 
trade and commerce. 

These improvements would 
solve the transportation problem 
for both eastern and northern 
Nova Scotia. It would greatly in- 



crecSB the mechanical, mettalur- 
jical and mining output of the 
Eastern Counties, and also open 
new farm areas for cultivation, 
besides ma! ing I ictou, by reason of 
its location and main line services, 
not only a great railway center, 
but also a harbour of even greater 
importance than it enjoys to-day, 
to which with its railways, not 
only the mines of Pictou County 
and the manufacturing industries 
of New Glasgow, Stellarton and 
Trenton, but also a yet larger un- 
cultivated agricultural country, a- 
long the North shore would pay a 
willing tribute, as the most con- 
venient and least expensive center 
from which to reach the ocean 
ports of the world. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



'fJrMONG the town's manufac- 
J$~ ]\ turing industries, the G. J. 
Hamilton & Sons biscuit and 
confectionery factory is the largest. 
Itwas founded as early as 1840 as a 
small bakery, by the late G.J. Ham- 



ilton. A few years later machin- 
ery was installed for the manfac- 
ture of pilot and ship breads. The 
venture prospered, and other lines 
were added. Biscuit production was 
undertaken on a larger scale, to 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



27 




A CROWDED WHARF— PICTOU HARBOUR. 



Photo by Wheten 



which the manufacture of confec- 
tionary was added, which under 
his successor as G. J. Hamilton & 
Sons, has been extended to such an 
extent as to make it one of the 
largest biscuit and confectionary 
producing plants in the Eastern 
Provinces. 

The factory consists of some 
five buildings, comprising about 
63,000 square feet of floor space. 
An automatic sprinkler system, fed 
by a stand pipe, 75 feet high, the 
water of which comes from an ar- 
tesian well 320 feet deep gives 
it efficient fire protection. It 
is equipped with the most modern 
machinery used in the manufac- 
ture of biscuit and confectionery 
products and has a capacity for 
utilizing more than 90 barrels of 
flour per day. The firm manufac- 
ture more than 300 varieties of bis- 
cuits, which under the slogan 
"Hamilton's Biscuits make U 
strong", with some 800 brands of 
candies, among which H.& S. choco- 



lates, Rival mixture and A-l mix- 
ture are leaders, under the slogan 
"Hamilton's Chocolates makes 'em 
happy," has made the Hamilton 
products the best known in East- 
ern Canada. 

All the high class goods are put 
up in attractive one-half, one, 
and three pound cartons, and the 
firm manufactures all its wooden 
and paper boxes and does all its 
own printing. 

The industry gives employment 
to some 180 people, more than one- 
half of whom are girls, who receive 
in wages over $60,000 yearly, 
the greater part of which is spent 
in Pictou town. 

The firm has branches in Hali- 
fax and agents in Quebec, besides 
employing five travellers, through 
whom its output is sold in the East- 
ern Provinces, Quebec and the 
West Indies. 

Another industry which plays an 
important part in the industrial 
life of Pictou is the Logan Tan- 



28 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




^ * 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



29 



neries, Limited, a $300,000 corpora- 
tion of which Wm. McClure, of 
Pictou, is President, and J. P. Don- 
ald, manager, while the tanning 
is done under the supervision 
of J. D. Stewart, who has had 
charge for the past 25 years and 
whose reputation as a tanner is 
well known throughout the trade. 
The tannery is located at Lyons 
Brook, three miles distant, along 
the West river on the Short Line 
Government Railway, and which 
with the factory's workmen and 
their families makes Lyons Brook 
a village of more than ordinary im- 
portance. It is the only sole leath- 
er factory in Nova Scotia. It was 
founded as early as 1848, by John 
Logan, who began the business in 
a small way by manufacturing 
sole leather, which even in that 
early day was noted for its super- 
ior quality, and which later under 
the slogan "Logan's, The Leather 
of Quality" laid the corner stone of 
the business success the corpor- 
ation enjoys at present. 

Under Mr. Logan the factory 
prospered. Destroyed by fire in 
1875, it was rebuilt on a much larg- 
er scale. In 1903 it again burned 
down, following which the present 
modernly equipped plant was erect- 
ed. The premises covers an area 
of about three acres onwhich are lo- 
cated the large factory, Dry loft, a 
leach house, warehouse, boarding 
house and other buildings, which 
with the grass plot ornamented with 
flowers facing the factory and the 
general air of clean liness prevading 
it, makes the factory site one which 
has few superiors anywhere. 

The factory is devoted exclus- 
ively to the manufacture ofsweat 



and slaughter sole leather. It util- 
izes 1600 to 2000 sides a week, the 
greater part of which are import- 
ed from South America. The out- 
put of leather, weighing some 2,- 
000,000 pounds is sold largely to 
the factories of the Maritime Pro- 
vinces, and high class shoe manu- 
facturers of Upper Canada, of 
whom less than a dozen all told 
buy practically the whole output. 

The industry employs about 50 
men, who receive yearly in wages 
more than $35,000, the most 
of which is spent in Pictou. 
The majority of the Company's 
employees are married men, who 
either own their own homes, or 
live in houses erected by the 
former, while the single men may 
have living quarters in a boarding 
house on the premises. Every 
dwelling has a garden, enabling the 
owner to raise all the vegetables 
and small fruit used by his fam- 
ily, while groceries and house- 
hold goods may be purchased at 
the store near the factory as cheap 
as in town, thus making the cost 
of living very low, and offering to 
the workmen nature advantages 
which the city employee craves for 
in vain. 

The only iron industry in Pictou 
is the Pictou Foundry and Ma- 
chine Company, of which A. A. 
Ferguson is owner, and which was 
founded nearly 60 years ago. It 
occupies a premises 295x500 feet 
in size, on which are located ma- 
chine shop and foundry, pattern 
shop, boiler and blacksmith shop, 
warehouses and office for the manu- 
facture of castings, engines, boilers 
and special machinery, as well as 
doing ship repairing. The indus- 
try employs about 20 people, and 



30- 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



31 



does machine work not only for 
local firms and the coal mine com- 
panies of the County, but also 
for firms as far away as Cape Bre- 
ton, where the high character of 
its output has met with general 
favor. 

Mr. Ferguson is also the Presi- 
dent of the Maritime Garage Co., 
Ltd., which in addition to being an 
automobile livery, does automobile 
repairing. 

One of the latest acquisitions to 
the industrial life of the town is 
the Atlantic Milling Company, 
Limited, of which J. W. Smith, 
the present Mayor of Pictou, is 
general manager. 

The industry is a direct develop- 
ment of a flour and grist mill, es- 
tablished at West River, near Dur- 
ham, on the farm of William Smith, 
one of the early settlers in the 
county, which after continuing in 
the family for several generations, 
was removed by J. W. Smith, 
great grandson of the former, to 
Pictou, to become the foundation 
of the present $50,000 corporation. 
The mill, built of concrete tile 
block, is equipped with all the lat- 
est milling machinery, and has a 
capacity of 75 barrels of flour, and 
200 barrels of cornmeal per day, 
while the elevator stores 40,000 
bushels of grain, making it one of 
the largest and best equipped 
milling plants east of Montreal. 

The company brings in large 
quantities of wheat and oats from 
the west for milling purposes and 
also mills grain locally for the farm- 
ers of Pictou, Colchester, Cum- 
berland, Antigonish and Halifax 
counties, besides being extensive 
importers of timothy and clover 
seed. 



They are at present installing 
machinery for cleaning and se- 
lecting seed of all kinds, which 
when in operation will make Pic- 
tou the seed distributing center 
for the Eastern Provinces as it is 
already by reason of this industry 
one of its largest milling centres. 

The woodworking factory of 
D. Fullarton &Son, established as 
early as 1825, includes a planing 
mill, sash and door factory, and a 
lumter yard. The firm manufac- 
tures doors, sashes, blinds, shop 
fronts, mantles, mouldings, sheet- 
ing, flooring and other wood pro- 
ducts. They handle laths, shingles 
and cement, besides hard and 
soft wood lumber which they sell 
locally and as far as Cape Breton, 
Northern Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island, employing in their 
operations 12 men, towhom they 
pay in wages yearly $6000.00. 

J. Carson & Sons woodworking 
factory is located near the center 
of the town facing the harbour, 
with the tracks of the Government 
railways passing through the pro- 
perty, thus giving it unexampled 
shipping facilities. The industry 
embraces a planing mill, sash and 
door factory, dry kiln and five 
warehouses besides a lumber yard. 
The firm employs ten people and 
manufactures doors, sash, mould- 
ings and other wood products, and 
are dealers in lumber, lime, bricks, 
cement tiles, plaster and general 
material, selling their goods not only 
locally but also through the north- 
ern part of the Province as far east 
as Cape Breton. 

One of the oldest industries in or 
near Pictou is Barry's Mill, owned 



32 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



33 




GOVERNMENT RAILWAY ROUND HOUSE 



Photo by Wheten 



by Alfred D. Barry, located on 
Haliburton Stream, one of the 
beauty spots of Pictou County, one 
and one-half miles from the town 
post office. The factory site, mill 
stream and pond embrace about 
seven acres. The industry includes 
a flour and feed mill as well as wood 
working factory. It grinds flour 
and feed, manufactures wood- 
working products of all kinds, such 
as doors, sashes, mouldings, besides 
dealing in lumber and ice, which 
he sells both at wholesale and re- 
tail. 

Primrose Brothers, wholesale 
manufacturers and dealers in lum- 
ber was founded in 1845 as Prim- 
rose & Son, who erected in 1850 
the Clarence Wood, Grain and 
Carding Mill on the site where the 
Government Railway round house 
is located. They own large tracts 
of lumber in Colchester and Queens 



Counties and employ during the 
season cutting lumber, some 200 
men, exporting the product largely 
to the English market. 

The Pictou Marine Railway does 
ship building and repairing of all 
kinds, and in the course of the 
year pays out a large amount of 
wages. Wm. Brennan conducts 
painting shops in Pictou, Stellarton 
and New Glasgow. The Viper 
Company, Limited, of which 
Mr. W. C. Wetmore is secretary, 
builds several types of speed 
boats, a local invention, the latest 
of which is the sea sled, known 
all over the world, as the most 
worthy and reliable of all speed 
boats. The company has a 

plant at the harbour front and one 
in the United States, building sea 
sleds in both countries with the de- 
mand for them constantly increas- 
ing. 



.34 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



35 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL HOUSES. 



THE wholesale shoe house of D. 
R. Sutherland does a growing 
business. J. W. Priest in ad- 
dition to two retail stores, carries on 
a wholesale shoe business which he 
started some five years ago, the 
following year taking over the 
R. Tanner company interests 
which he still carries on. Mr. 
Priest gives his personal attention 
to the wholesale business. He has 
three men on the road, covering 
the Maritime Provinces. Besides 
carrying a large line of general 
footwear, made by the best Cana- 
dian manufacturers, he specializes 
in the "Every Day Shoe," "Walk 
Easy" shoe for men, and the 
"Princess Pat" shoe for women. 
He is also the distributing agent 
for the Canadian Consolidated 
Rubber Co., Limited, for rubber 
and sporting shoes, and does an in- 
creasing volume of business from 
year to year. 

The large retail dry goods busi- 
ness of J. Smith Grant, established 
in 1885, located in the Smith Grant 
Block, carries a very complete 
line of domestic and imported dry 
goods, and house furnishings. The 
store also has costumes, mantles 
and a general ready-to-wear line 
of clothing for men and women, in 
addition to a custom tailoring de- 
partment which with the quality 
of the goods carried has made the 
store one of the most important 
in the county. 

The dry goods firm of Macdon- 
and Bethune, the members of 
which are G. W. Macdonald and 
J. W. J. Bethune, is the successor 
to T. Glover, a drygoods dealer 
established in Pictou as early as 
1872, whose interests they pur- 



chased in January, 1916. The 
firm are direct importers of British 
fancy dry goods, and sell ready-to- 
wear garments, curtains, carpets 
and house furnishings, utilizing the 
whole of a three story building, 40 
x 80 feet, to carry on their growing 
business. 

Hislop & Company conduct an 
exclusive ready-to wear clothing 
and furnishing store occupying 
the whole of a large two story 
building, besides being the agent 
for the well known 20th century 
clothing, while E. Watt and Com- 
pany, in addition to selling mens' 
and boys' wear, trunks and travel- 
ling bags, represents Style Craft 
Clothes for men. 

James MacLean & Sons, occupy 
one of the finest stores in the town. 
It is large and well lighted.lt carries 
books, school supplies, writing ma- 
terial, wall paper, post cards and 
souvenir goods of all kinds, besides 
foreign and Canadian magazines 
and newspapers and does a large 
and increasing trade. 

The grocery and provision busi- 
ness of P. Brown & Son, established 
in 1854, occupies a four story build- 
ing, besides a large warehouse, 
located on the water front, being 
both retail dealers and jobbers 
to smaller country stores. The 
firm also conducts a coal yard, 
selling the well known Drummond 
and Acadia coal, while J. A. Stalk- 
er & Co., occupy a large brick 
building in which they conduct a 
general store, specializing in gro- 
ceries and crockeryware. 

Following the establishment of 
the Logan Tanneries at Lyons 
Brook, Dougal Logan opened a 
general store, which after his death 



36 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 






PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



37 



passed to his son A. T. Logan. It 
handles groceries, drygoods, boots, 
shoes, paints, oils, kitchenware and 
a general line of household goods. 
Mr. Logan is also the agent for the 
well-known "Ford cars" for the 
northern half of Pictou County, 
in the sale of which he has been 
very successful. 

The large furniture store and 
undertaking establishment of Geo. 
McLaren & Sons, established about 
50 years ago, occupies a two story 
building, 40 x 300 feet, the whole 
of which is utilized to carry on 
their business. The firm, in addi- 
rion to undertaking and embalm- 
ing, manufactures caskets, for 
which latter they have agencies in 
the smaller towns throughout the 
county. The business of William 
Ross selling clocks, watches, silver- 
ware and jewelry, is one of the old- 
est in the town, having been es- 
tablished more than 50 years ago. 
The Minto Pharmacy, of which 
K. J. MacKenzie is proprietor, in 
addition to conducting a prescrip- 
tion department, sells drugs and 
proprietary medicines, as w-ell as 
kodaks and photographic sup- 
plies. 

W. C. Wetmore & Co., with a 
branch store at Trenton, conducts 
a plumbing and heating business. 
They have installed plumbing and 
heating plants in the principal 
buildings in Pictou, among which 
the one just completed at the J. 
Smith Grant Block is one of the 
largest. They handle stationary 



and marine gasoline engines, motor 
boat and automobile supplies and 
fittings. They have a Bowser Red 
Sentry Gasoline Filling Station on 
the curb directly in front of their 
store, where they supply filtered 
gasoline to automobiles and motor- 
boats. 

W. D. Mckenzie besides do- 
ing tinsmithing also does steam, 
hot water and hot air heating and 
plumbing, and deals in ranges, cook 
ing and heating stoves, in addi- 
tion to selling nickel plate, granite, 
iron and tinware. F. J. Tobin, 
while conducting an up-to-date 
jewelry store, is also the agent for 
the Edison phonograph, Edison 
records and diamond discs, which 
latter is the last word in phonogra- 
phic reproduction. A. Henderson 
& Son, established in 1830, sell 
footwear for men, women and 
children and are last and leather 
dealers. Thomas A. MacKay 
has an up-to-date hardware store, 
and Pope Brothers conduct one of 
the largest meat stores in the town 
while C. H. Wisener's ice cream 
parlors enjoy a large patronage. 

William A. Ives, who designed 
the cover for this booklet, is a steel 
and copper plate engraver, plate 
printer and embosser of wedding 
and calling cards, and other high 
class printing specialties. The 
town has a large number of other 
retail stores besides those mention- 
ed, embracing all the various 
branches of business, which do a 
growing trade making the town 
an important retail center. 



38 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




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JAME3 MACLEAN & SONS. Photo by Wheten. 

Dealers in Books, School Supplies, Newspapers, Magazines, Post Cards, Wall Paper and 
Souvenir Goods of all kinds. 

HEALTH & SPORTS. 



PICTOU is a healthy town. 
It has exceptional possibilities 
as a summer resort. A large num- 
ber of people come from the towns 
and cities of the Province and the 
Xew England States to spend the 
summer in the town, finding en- 
joyment on its harboured waters, 
in long country drives and the in- 
vigorating sea breezes, blowing 
landward from the Strait shore. 

From almost every point of the 
residence section a magnificent 
view is had of the harbour and the 
shores beyond, rising terrace like 
to form an amphitheatre of scenic 
beauty, which has few superiors any 
where. Seaward, the high ground, 
gradually breaks into low rolling 
hills and long stretches of teach 
land extending along the water to 
the entrance of the harbour. On the 



Pictou Landing side, a large num- 
ber of families from New Glasgow, 
Stellarton and other towns own 
summer cottages at Little Harbour, 
while Rustico Park offers moving 
picture vaudeville, dancing and 
other entertainment, twice a week 
during the summer months. 

The air is clear and dry. Fog is 
rare. The midsummer heat is tem- 
pered by the ocean breezes and the 
nights are cool. The sandy beaches 
along the harbour front and be- 
yond its mouth offer fine warm 
salt water bathing, while the har- 
bour waters have no superior for 
boating and sailing. In the winter, 
horse racing is indulged in on the 
harbour ice and curling and other 
games furnish unequalled winter 
sport. 

From Pictou easy access may be 



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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



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DOUGAL LOGAN, LYON'S BROOK. Photo by Wheten 

Groceries, Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Paints, Kitchen Ware and Household Goods. 
A. F. Logan, Agent for Ford Cars. 



had by boat to any part of Prince 
Edward Island and Magdalen Is- 
lands, as well as other points along 
the Strait shore. New Glasgow and 
intermediate points may be reach- 
ed by railroad, river steamers, as 
well as by carriage and automobile, 
passing through a section of coun- 
try of unequalled nature scenes, 
while all around lie beauty spots of 
matchless charm, to visit which the 
tourist should find both pleasure 
and delight. 

Pictou is the sportsmen's Mecca. 
The trout fishing is good from May 
until August. Trout range in 

weight from one-half to three 
pounds. The West River, flowing 
into the harbor, the Big and Little 
Carribou Rivers, Toney River and 
River John abound in sea trout. 
The Earltown lakes, Mcintosh, 
Gully and Wood Lakes at Logan- 
ville, and Bezanson's Lake, at 



Mount Thorn, are all well stocked 
with lake trout, while Barney's, 
French and Sutherland Rivers, 
Eight Mile Brook and Six Mile 
Brook, flowing into West River, as 
well as many smaller streams 
within an hour's drive from the 
town are rich in river trout. 

The waters along the Strait shore 
abound in cod, mackerel, bass and 
other fish. Boat and Chance Har- 
bour and Carribou Harbour offer 
fine goose and duck shooting during 
March and April, while from the 
latter month to June the Brent- 
Goose and in the fall the blue wing 
ducks may be found in large flocks 
in the marshes along the strait 
shore. 

The Sheet Harbour woods and 
the territory toward Mount Thorn, 
furnish moose shooting, and deer 
are numerous throughout the coun- 
ty. Little Liscombe Lake, Big 
Brook, and Rocky River have 



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W. C. WETMORE & CO. 
Plumbing, Steam and Hot Water Heating. 

trout and other fish. From the 
Garden of Eden Settlement not 
far distant is reached a territory 
abounding in wild geese and ducks, 



GEORGE McLAREN & SONS 

Furniture and Upholstering. Undertaking and 

Embalming. 

and all the country ro and about of- 
fers fine partridge, woodcock and 
snipe shooting, besides rabbits and 
other small game. 



NEWSPAPERS, BAR, BANKS AND HOTELS. 



THE first newspaper published 
in Pictou was the Colonial 
Patriot, which was also the 
first paper in the Lower Provinces 
to advocate the principles of re- 
sponsible self-government. It was 
followed in 1831 by the Pictou Ob- 
server, which like the Juvenile 
Entertainer, started the same year, 
and the Patriot, ceased to be pub- 
lished in 1833, although the Observ- 
er was revived in 1843, only to 
suspend publication the next year. 
The Bee was published about 
1835 to 1838. It was followed 
by the Mechanic and Farmer in 



1838, and the Presbyterian Banner 
in 1842, both of which in 1845 were 
merged in The Eastern Chronicle, 
appearing at present as a bi-weekly 
in New Glasgow. 

In 1858 the Colonial Standard 
appeared, which in turn was re- 
placed by the Pictou News, to be 
followed by the Pictou Advocate, 
the only paper published at pres- 
ent in the town. The latter, an 
eight to twelve page weekly paper, 
is liberal in politics. It takes a 
deep interest in local affairs, and 
by reason of its amount of local 
news, has a large number of sub- 



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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



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scribers toth in and out of town. 

The Bank of Nova Scotia dis- 
tinguished for having the largest 
reserve fund in proportion to its 
capital of any bank in Canada, 
with its 189 branches has had a 
branch in Pictou since 1839 and oc- 
cupies a three story stone building, 
the ground floor of which is util- 
ized for banking purposes, while 
the two upper stories are occupied 
by the Manager. 

The Royal Bank of Canada, a 
branch of which was established 
in Pictou in 1870 has 376 branches, 
a paid up capital of $12,000,000.00 
a reserve fund of $13,236,000, and 
assets over $200,000,000, making 
it one of the largest tanking insti- 
tutions in the Dominion. 

The town has four physicians 
and eight memfcers of the Bar. 
Hon. E. M. Macdonald, is at pres- 
ent the Dominion Member for 
Pictou County, which has had a 
representative in every Provincial 
ministry since 1875. 

Pictou has a number of good ho- 
tels and restaurants, among which 
the Wallace is the largest. It is 
conveniently located near the rail- 
way park on Front Street. The 
hotel has 63 bed rooms in addition 



to office, parlor, writing, lounging 
and dining rooms, all of which are 
well lighted and comfortably furn- 
ished and command a magni- 
ficent view of Pictou Harbour and 
the country beyond. 

The dining room seats 48 guests. 
The cuisine is choice and the ser- 
vice efficient and courteous. It is 
largely patronized by business men 
and tourists, who coming to Pic- 
tou for a day or a week find it a 
home of rest and comfort. 

The St. Julian is the outgrowth 
of a restaurant established by J. W. 
Hogg in the Hogg Block in 1912. 
The business prospering he con- 
verted the whole three story build- 
ing into a hotel in 1916. It has a 
parlor and 16 ted rooms on the 
upper floors, all of which com- 
mand a fine view of harbour and 
town. The dining room seats for- 
ty people. The meals are substan- 
tial, well cooked and properly serv- 
ed, every effort being made to see 
that guests are as well treated as 
possible. 

The town has four or five other 
hotels, as well as restaurants and 
boarding houses, where accommo- 
dation and meals may be had at 
moderate prices. 



NATURAL RESOURCES. 



'HEN the first settlers arrived 
in Pictou in 1767, they found 
the whole of the 719,000 acres of 
land the county contains covered 
with white pine, oak, fir, maple and 
other wood. For a number of years 
it was the chief source of income to 
the inhabitants and even to-day 
lumbering is an important indus- 
try. 

The county has many well culti- 



vated farms. It is one of the best 
agricultural counties in the Pro- 
vince. It is well suited for dairy 
ing and sheep raising. Of late 
years the dairy industry has rapid- 
ly expanded. It has two cream- 
eries, both of which are doing an 
increasing business. 

According to the the census of 
1911, the county produced livestock, 
grain and dairy products, valued at 



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ST. JULIAN HOTEL, J. W. HOGG, PROP. 
European Plan. Rates Moderate. 

$2,407,348, an amount which far 
exceeds its output of coal, large as 
that is, while it is more than twice 
the sum realized for brick, tile, 
pottery, logs, lumber, preserved 
fish and leather, which were valued 
that year at $1,014,430. 

1 he county has large deposits 
of coal, as v ell as iron, limestone 
and other mineral products. I he 
coal district err r races an area of 
sorre twenty square miles. Under 
it are located seven or eight searr.s 
to a depth of nearly 2C00 feet, the 
largest of which, called the "Big 
Seam" or n ain seam has a vertical 
thickness of forty seven feet eight 
inches. The coal supply is almost 
inexhaustible and mined at the 




w. d. Mckenzie 

Plumbing, Tinsmithing, Steam and Hot Water 
Heating. 

rate of 1,000,000 tons annually, will 
furnish coal on a paying basis for 
hundreds of years to come. 

Coal was first discoverd in the 
county by Dr. James McGregor 
in 1798. Nine years later John 
McKay discovered what has since 
become known as the "Big Seam". 
The organization of the General 
Mining Association, to whom all 
the reserved mines in Nova Scotia 
passed in 1825 opened a new era 
in coal mining operations. They 
sank new shafts, equipped them 
v ith rrore modern rrachinery and 
on Sept. 6, 1827 raised their first 
coa 1 , whilo by December they had 
the first steam engine in the Pro- 
vince in operation. 

To marlet the coal rrore advan- 
tageously, they constructed a rail- 
way on which the cars were drawn 
by horses to a point a little below 



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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



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New Glasgow, from where the coal 
was conveyed in lighters to the 
loading ground, opposite the 
town of Pictou, for loading it into 
ocean vessels. In 1839 the com- 
pany began the construction of a 
six mile steam railroad from the 
mines to the loading ground. It 
cost $160,000 and was the first 
steam railway built in Canada. 
With the railway completed the 
company extended its mining op- 
erations over a tract of land cov- 
ering some 40 acres. In 1872 the 
General Mining Association sold 
all its rights in Pictou County to 
the Halifax Company, retaining 
only a territory of four square 
miles, situated on both sides of the 
East River from the Albion Mines 
to New Glasgow. 

About this time too, James D. 
B. Fraser, of Pictou, discovered the 
well known Stellar coal. The dis- 
covery gave a new- impetus to 
coal mining in the district. He 
organized the Acadia Coal Com- 
pany and began w r orlring the orig- 
inal McGregor seam and the Aca- 
dia seam, discovered about two 
miles southwest of the Albion seam. 
With the years the company furth- 
er extended its operations, while 
the Intercolonial, Vale, and some 
eight more companies were formed. 
All of these, with the exception of 
the Intercolonial, however, have 
been abandoned or merged with the 
Acadia Coal Company, which with 
the Intercolonial, employ about 
2100 men and mine a little over 
700,000 tons of coal in the county 
yearly, the greater part of which is 
sold throughout Quebec and the 
Maritime Provinces. 

The county also has large de- 
posits of iron. The district along 



Sutherland River has a valuable 
deposit of spathic iron ore. Near 
Springville in the East River valley 
is a vein of Lemonite from five to 
twenty-five feet wide, 65 per cent 
of which is metallic iron. East- 
ward from New Lairg near Glen- 
garry a vein of specular iron has 
been traced, containing from 64 to 
69 per cent of metal. The county 
has large deposits of limestone, as 
well as fine fire clay suitable for 
brick, pottery and terra cotta pro- 
ducts. It has an abundance of 
silica sands for the manfacture 
of glass, while moulding sand of 
the finest quality is plentiful along 
the East River and its tributaries. 

Pictou is the center for the lob- 
ster trade of northern Nova Scotia. 
The lobster season continues from 
about April 25 to June 25th, and 
during that time about 85,000,000 
lobsters are caught in Canadian 
waters, the greater number of 
which come from Northumberland 
Strait. 

The town not only has a number 
of packing houses, but the Strait 
shore further away and the islands 
adjacent have some nine to ten ad- 
ditional factories. Of these Logan 
and Murdock's plant, located at 
Spring Point, Carribou Harbour 
packs about 800 cases each season. 
The industry includes the factory, 
packing plant. Voarding house and 
dwellings for their employees and 
families, the former of whom num- 
bering about 50 men. The indus- 
try with its numerous houses is 
very attractively located, and be- 
sides handling lobster, have a good 
opportunity for packing fish of 
which the adjacent waters offer 
an ample supply. 

Burnham & Morrill own eleven 



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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 




PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



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factories about Northumberland 
Strait and buy the output of nine 
more, handling in a season about 
1,000,000 cans of lobsters. Fred 
Magee Limited, puts up about 
7000 cases. J. W. Windsor packs 
about 5000 cases and J. Atkins & 
Co., 1100 cases, during the season, 
while George Smith & Co., in addi- 
tion to lobsters, also pack salmon 
and herring. 

The Canadian Government main- 
tains a lobster hatchery, es- 
tablished in 1891 at Bay View, a 
bout 6 miles from Pictou. Work at 



the hatchery begins about the 
first of May and continues until 
the 15th of July, and during that 
time 100,000,000 fry are hatched 
and distributed in and about Pic- 
tou Harbour. 

The Strait shore also abounds in 
Cod, Mackerel and other deep sea 
fish as well as clams and oysters, 
which find not only a ready market 
in Nova Scotia, but are also ship- 
ped with its large output of lobsters 
to Upper Canada and to foreign 
countries in increasing quantities. 



MANUFACTURING PROSPECT. 



rn)ICTOU owns valuable sites 
^ along the harbour and railway 
which are available for manufactur- 
ing plants. Industries requiring 
coal, steel and iron would find Pic- 
tou a good location, as the iron and 
steel industries at Trenton are less 
than six miles from town and the 
coal mines of the county are only a 
short distance away. 

There is also a demand for a 
barrel and shook factory to supply 
the fisheries, pork packing plant, 
carriage factory, clothing factories, 
and other industries. The harbor 
furnishes cheap water transpor- 



tation and by means of the railway 
inland towns are conveniently 
reached. New industries should not 
only employ the surplus labor, but 
also bring additional workers. Rents 
are reasonable, and living expenses 
low when compared with Upper 
Canadian cities, as nearly every 
householder has an opportunity to 
raise the vegetables and fruits his 
family consumes. In encouraging 
new industries the town has no 
fixed policy as to their treatment, 
but it is willing to consider them on 
their merits and if found worthy 
to make their coming profitable. 



NOTICE. 

For further information as to its residential, summer resort, 
industrial and business possibilities, write to the Town Clerk, 
Pictou, N. S. 



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PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA 



INDEX 



Pages 

Historical 5 

Government and Finance 9 

Public Improvements 11 

Educational Facilities 13 

Churches 21 

Public Institutions 22 

Water, Railway and 

Transportation 25 

Manufacturing Industries ?6 

Wholesale and Retail Houses.. 3 5 

Health and Sports 39 

Newspaper, Bar, Banks and Hotels 43 

Natural Resources 4 5 

Manufacturing prospects 51 

Atlantic Milling Co. Ltd 31-32 

Barry's Mill 31-44 

Brown, P. & Son 35-40 

Bank of Nova Scotia 45-46 

Carson, J. &Son 31-34 

Fullerton & Son 3' -34 

Hamilton & Son 26-28 

Grant, Smith J 35-33 

Henderson, A. & Son 37-46 

Hislop & Co 3 "-38 

Hotel Wallace 42-45 

Ives, Wm. A 37 

Logan Tanneries Ltd 27-3 ) 



Pages 

Logan Dougal 35-41 

Logan & Murdock's Lobster 

Factory 40-49 

Minto Pharmacy 37-44 

Mackay, Thos. A 37-46 

McKenzie, W. D 37-47 

McLaren & Sons 37-43 

MacLean, Jas. & Sons 35-39 

MacDonald & Bethune 35-38 

Marine Railway 33-46 

Pictou Foundry & Machine Co. . . 29-34 

Pope Bros 37-46 

Priest, J. W 35-36 

Pictou Marine Railway 33-46 

Primrose Bros 33 

Pictou Theatre 23-46 

Pictou Advocate 43-46 

Pictou School of Music 19-42 

Royal Bank of Canada 45 

Ross, William 37-44 

Sutherland, D. R 35 

Stalker J. A. & Co 35-42 

St. Julian Hotel 45-47 

Tobin, F. J 37-46 

Viper Co. Ltd. 33 

Wisener, C. H 37-39 

Wetmore, W. C. & Co 37-43 

Watt, E. & Cc 35-44 




OLD DAWSON HOUSE, 
Birthplace of the late Sir William Dawson, formerly President of McGill College. 



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